Muharram-ul-Haram Compiled by: Syeda Bint-e-Zahra,President Dukhtaraan-e-Islam.


           Muharram-ul-Haram, the one of those four months which are called Hurmat walay maheenay (the months in which jidal-o-Qital (fighting) was prohibited and they are Muharram, Rajab, Zeeqa’ad and Zilhajj) is the beginning of Islamic calendar. It is the month in which Imam Hussain (A.S), the greatest  membpersonality of Khanwada-e-Rasool P.b.U.H and his Aal) along with 72members of his (A.S) Ashaab (companions), holy children and relatives offered such great sacrifice in the burning plain of Karabala for the eminence of Islam, which is matchless in the whole human history. He is the great leader of all oppressed nations in the world. Infact Karbala is the fountainhead of all oppressed movements. The best amal (deed) during this month is to mourn, lament and weep over the great museebah (afflicition) of Imam Hussain and His Holy family.

          It is reported from Imam Raza (A.S) “Muharram-ul-Haram was such a month in which even infidels considered fighting haram but the hypocrites of this ummah considered our blood halal in this month, imprisoned our mukhaddarat-e-Ismat-o-Taharat (womenfolk) and children, burnt our camps, looted our goods and chattles and didn’t show favour to Hurmat-e-Rasool (P.b.U.H and His Aal). This museebah (affliction) has hurt our eyes”, this is the month of grief and deep sorrow. Masoom (A.S) says: “to mourn and weep over Imam Hussain(a.s) obliterate mortal sins (gunahaan-e-Kabeera).”

          A Hadith of Imam Raza goes: “In the month of muharram nobody had ever seen my father (A.S) happy and merry. During this month he remained in continuous grief and pain and on the 10th of this month he was used to say “today Imam Hussain (A.S) was martyred brutally”.

          Few prayers have been mentioned in the books to be offered in the first night (night berfore Ist day of the month):

1.      Two rakaat prayer --- in each rakat sura Hamd and Sura Touheed should be recited;

2.      Two rakaat Prayer --- in Ist rakaat sura Hamd and Sura Inaam while in the second, Sura Hamd and Sura Yaseen are to be recited;

3.       Two rakaat prayer and in each rakaat Sura Hamd once and Sura Touheed eleven times, ought to be recited.


          According to a saying of Holy Prophet (P.b.U.H and His Aal) he who offers two rakaat prayer in this night and keeps fast in the Ist day of Islamic calender (Ist of Muharram) is like that person who has done good during the whole year and as a reward he will remain safe and secure in the whole year, and in case he dies, will be entered to heaven (Jannat).

          Waking all night in ibaadat (worship), dua’a and recitation of Holy Quran is mustahab (desirable).

          It is reported that Holy Prophet (P.b.U.H and His Aal) was used to offer two rakaat prayer on the Ist day of Muharram and after offering prayer recite following dua’a while raising his hands:


(For complete dua’a mafateeh-ul-Jinnan may be consulted).

          It was the 2nd day of Muharram-ul-Haram in the year 61 A.H when Imam Hussain (A.S) came to Karbala.


          On 7th Muharram-ul-Haram Ibne Ziyad (may Allah curse him) ordered his men to prevent Imam Hussain, the son of saqi-e-Kauser (A.S), along with his family and followers from getting water to Euphrates in order that they (A.S) should not drink even a drop of it.

          9 Muharram is Youm-e-Tasu’a. It has been reported from Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (A.S) that Roz-e-Tasu’a is the day when army of Yazid (may he be cursed and pit of Hell be for him) besieged Imam Hussain (A.S) and His ashaab to fight against them. Ibne Marjana and Umer Sa’ad (may they be cursed) became glad for having big army and considered for having a big army and considered Imam Hussain and his Ashaab weak. Then Imam Sadiq (A.S) said “may I ransom my grand father Imam Hussain (A.S) with my father and mother.”

          The night between 9 and 10 is shab-e-Aashoor (Aashoor night). This is the night when Imam Hussain (A.S) brother of Imam Hasan (A.S) about whom Holy Prophet (P.b.U.H and His Aal) said: “O God, I love both of them. Therefore love them and love whoever loves them” then he said: “whoever loves al-Hasan and al-Hussain, is one whom I love. Whomever I love, God loves, and whomever God loves, he will cause to enter Heaven. Whoever hates them, I hate and God hates whomever God hates, he will cause to enter the Fire”. Then he said: “These two sons of mine are two plants of sweet basil (to sweeten) the world”.

          Gathered his (A.S) followers (Ashaab) around him. Ali Ibne al-Hussain, Zayn ul-Abedeen(A.S) reported: “I heard my father saying to his followers: ‘I glorify God with the most perfect glorification and I praise him in happiness and misfortune. O God, I praise you for blessing us with Prophethood, teaching us the Quran’. Then he again said: ‘ I know of no followers more loyal and more virtuous than my followers, nor of any House more pious and more close Knit than my House. May Allah reward you well on my behalf. I permit you to leave me. All of you go away with the absolution of your oath to follow me, for there will be no further obligation on you from me. This is a night (whose darkness) will give cover you. Use it as a camel (i.e. ride away in it)’. Then my father put out the light so his followers, ashaab could go without any hesitation and shyness in the darkness. But when after some time he lighted the lamp, he saw all of his loyal ashaab and followers with their own swords on their necks. Muslim bin Awsaja (may Allah have mercy on him) arose and said : “By God, we will never leave you”. If I knew that I would die and then be revived and then burnt and then revived, and then scattered, and that would be done to me seventy times, I would never leave you until I met my death (fighting) on your behalf’. Another follower said: “No, by God, we will not do (such a thing). Rather we will ransom you with our lives, property and families. All his followers spoke in similar vein, one after the other Imam Hussain (my father) called (on God to) reward them well”. (reference --- Kitab al-Irshad by shaykh al-Mufeed may God have mercy on him).

          In this night, Imam along with his relatives and ashaab remained busy in ibaadat-e-ilahee. Some aamaal of this night are as under:


·        Waking all night in ibaadat, it is as he has performed ibaadat with mala’ika (angels), and it is equal to 70 years ibaadat in reward;

·        Hold majaalis of Noha and matam to commemorate Imam Hussain’s (A.S) martyrdom;

·        Mourn and lament for Imam’s museebah (affliction);

·        Visit the Holy grave of Imam Hussain in Karbala and if not possible then recite ziarat-e-Imam Hussain (A.S).

Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (A.S) said : he who spend this night while lamenting for Imam’s museebah will in the day of resurrection, be raised while covered with his blood as the martyrs of Karbala will, and whoever recites Ziarat-e-Imam Hussain (A.S) in this night is as he martyred on behalf of Imam Hussain (A.S)”.

·        Perform 4 rakaat prayer, in each rakaat 50 times Sura-e-Touheed ought to be recited after Sura Hamd;

·        Invoke Allah’s blessings on Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.b.U.H and His Aal) and his Aal (darood);

·        Curse upon their (A.S) enemies.

(Aashoora) the 10th of Muharram-ul-Haram is the darkest day of the whole human history as the holy son of Hazrat Ali and Hazrat Batool (A.S) Hazrat Imam Hussain about whom the Holy Prophet (about whom Quran says:


“He does not speak out of his own fancy. This is no other than an inspired revelation)

“Hussain is from me and i am from Hussain.”

Was martyred wrongfully in the year 61 A.H after Asr (mid-day) prayer, while thirsty and striving in the burning plain of Karbala. The respect due to him was ignored. They showered him with arrows until he became (quilted with arrows). His age on that day was 57 years. Imam Raza (A.S) says: “no one could count the wounds of my grand father Hussain(A.S). The wounds over his Holy body were equal to the letters of Holy Quran in number”.

          After his martyrdom the sky turned red. Yousuf bin Abeeda reported: “I heard Muhammed bin sireen say : such a redness which was in the sky was never seen except after the killing of Hussain bin Ali(A.S).”

          We see this redness (which appeared after the martyrdom of Imam Hussain) in the sky before maghrib daily.

          Shaykh al-mufeed (may Allah have mercy on him) writes in his book kitab al-Irshad that Imam Hussain (A.S) before his shahadat (martyrdom) called out at the top of his voice: “O people of Iraq listen to my words”. He praised and glorified Allah and mentioned what Allah is entitled to. He called for blessing on the Prophet (P.b.U.H and His Aal) and on the angels and (other) Prophets. No speaker has ever been heard before or after him, more eloquent in his speech than he was. He (A.S) continued: “Trace back my lineage and consider who I am. Then look back at yourselves and remonstrate with yourselves. Consider whether it is right for you to kill me and to violate the honour of my women folk who are mukhaddarat-e-ismat-o-taharat. Am i not the son of the daughter of you Prophet, of his lestamentary trustee (wasi) and his cousin? Was not Hamza (A.S), the lord of the martyrs, my father’s uncle? Was not Jafar, the one who flies in heaven, my uncle? Have you not heard the words of the Apostle of God concerning my self and my brother Hasan (A.S):

“These are the two lords of the youths of the inhabitants of heaven”? then he again said: “Is there no (sufficient) in this to prevent you shedding my blood?”.

After they (may Allah curse them) killed Imam Hussain (A.S), Shimar (may Allah curse him) bent down and decapitated Imam who was (Hajjat ullah) the proof of God. He lifted the holy head and handed it to khawli (may Allah curse him) saying: “take it to the commander Umar bin Sa’ad (may Allah curse him)” who then despatched the head of Imam with Khawli bin Yazid al Asbahi and Humayed bin muslim al Azdi, to Ubaid-ullah bin Ziyad (may Allah curse them).

After cutting his holy head off, they began to plunder the holy body of Imam Hussain (A.S). Abjar bin Ka’ab (may Allah curse him)  who plundered Imam, his two hands become so dry and benumbed in the summer that they were like sticks and then soaking wet in the winter so that they sprinkled drops of water and puss, until Allah destroyed him.

          After plundering him, Ishaq bin Hayyat and Akhnas bin marthad (may Allah curse them) trampled on the holy body of Imam Hussain, the grand son of Holy Prophet (P.b.U.H and His Aal) with their horses after it they (may Allah curse them) burnt Imam’s Camps and inprisoned his womenfolk (mukhaddarat-e-Ismat-o-Taharat) and children.

It is reported with a chain of authorities on the authority of Umm-ul-Momeneen Hazrat Umm-e-Salma (may Allah be pleased with her), that she said: “One evening the Apostle of God left us and was away for a long time. He came back, he was dishevelled and dusty and his hand was holding something. I said to him: “Apostle of God, why do I see you dihevelled and dusty?: He said: “I have just been on a night journey to a place in Iraq called Karbala. There I saw the death of my son, al Hussain, and a group of my children and the members of my family. I could not stop myself from gathering some of their blood and here it is in my hand.” He opened his hand and said: “take it and look after it”. I took it. It was like red soil, I put it in a phial, fastened its top and kept it. When Imam Hussain (A.S) left makah on his way to Iraq, I took out that phial every day and night: I used to smell it and look at it, then I would weep. On the 10th Muharram, the day on which Imam Hussain (A.S) was killed. I saw Holy Prophet in my dream while dishevelled and dusty. He didn’t has Imama (turban) on his head, his Qaba (long coat) was untied and his eyes were flowing with tears I asked the reason. He told me: “my Hussain has been killed in Karbala” I woke up of my sleep and took out the phial, behold, it was fresh blood. I shrieked with grief and wept.”

Abdullah bin sinaan says that it was Aashoora day when i went to Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (A.S) and found him in sadness, deep sorow and grief while his eyes were flowing with tears. I asked him the reason. He said: “don’t you know that this was the day when my grand father Syed-ush shuhada Imam Hussain (A.S) was martyred wrongfully”. Abdullah asked again: “what should we do today? “ Imam told him some aamaal of the day which are as under:

·        nobody should engage himself in any work other than mourning and weeping for Imam’s museebah and holding majalis;

·        he should not store up the grain etc;

·        Untie his Qaba;

·        Tuck up his sleeves as afflicted, misfortuned (museebat zada) do;

·        Fasting till after Asr time because this was the time when fighting was stopped, and then iftar should be with simple food instead of delicious;

·        Hold majaalis to commemorate Imam Hussain’s martyrdom;

·        Lament, mourn and weep over Imam as would weep for the deasert son of his own;

·        Recite the Ziarat-e-Aashoora of Imam Hussain (A.S);

         (mafteehul Jinnan may be consulted for Ziarat)

·        Curse upon Imam’s and his companinon's  murderers in these words:

O Allah curse the murderers of Imam Hussain (A.S) and his ashaab (companions)

·        Condole each other for the great museebah of Imam Hussain (A.S) in these words.

“May Allah greaten our reward for we mourn for Imam Hussain alehay salam and cause us and you from among the suitors of his (A.S) blood with His wali Imam Mehdi (Ajja  lallaho farajahu) who is from Aal-e-Muhammad (A.S).”

Imam Raza (A.S said: “whoever considers Aashoora day, the day of grief and sorrow, Allah will make the day of resurrection for him, the day of happiness and pleasure.”

·        And then condole Holy Prophet Muhammad (P.b.U.H and His Aal) Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Fatima, Hazrat Imam Hasan (A.S) and all masoomeen (A.S) for this great museebah while weeping, and then recite the following ziarat:


(for complete Ziarat Mafateehul Jinnan may be consulted)

 Shaykh Mufeed in his book Kitab-al-Irshad wrote On 11th Muharram-ul-Haram mukhaddat-e-Ismat-o-taharat and children of Imam Hussain (A.S) (to whom they (may Allah curse them) imprisoned) were departed for kufa. In the same day, some of Banu Asad who had been staying at al Ghazariyya, buried Imam Hussain Under the orders of Imam Zayn-ul-Abedeen (A.S) (who was sick and also imprisoned with mukhaddarat-e-Ismat-o-Taharat) at the place where his holy tomb still is.

          Many reports have come down about the great merit (to be acquired) by visiting Imam Hussain’s grave. It is reported from Imam Jafar-e-Sadiq (A.S) that he said: “visiting the grave of Imam Hussain is equal to hundred acceptable pilgrimages (hajj) and a hundred acceptable off-seasonal pilgrimages (Umra)”. Holy Prophet said: “whoever visits the grave of Imam Hussain (A.S) will have heaven (as his reward)”.

          It was 12 Muharram when Ibne Sa’ad (may Allah curse him) arrived Kufa bringing with him mukhaddarat-e-ismat-o-taharat (daughters and house hold) of Imam Hussain (A.S), Ibne Ziyed (may the pit of Hell be for him) sat before the people in the governor’s palace and put the holy head of Imam Hussain in front of him and began to look at it with an odious smile. In his hand he had a cane and he began to poke at the Holy teeth with it. When Hazrat Zayed bin Arqam, the honourable companion of Holy Prophet (P.b.U.H and His Aal) who was (then) and old man, saw him (may Allah curse him) poking at the Holy teeth with the cane, he said: “Take your cane away from those two lips, for by God, other than whom there is no deity, I have seen the lips of the Apostle if God touch those two lips countless times”. With that he (may Allah be pleased with him) began to weep at this Ibne Ziyad (may Allah curse him) burnt with anger and said: “if it was not for the fact that you are an old man who has become silly and your mind has left you, I would cut off your head”.

          The next morning (13th of Muharram) Ubaid ullah bin Ziayad (may Allah curse him) sent the head of Imam Hussain (A.S) to Yazeed (may Allah curse him) after it had been taken through all the streets and tribes of Kufa.

          It is reported from Zayd bin Arqam, the companion of Holy Prophet : it was brought past; it was stuck on spear and I was in a room in my (house). As it was apposite me I heard it (the Holy head of Imam) recite:

“or do you think that the companions of the cave and the inscription were among our wonderful signs.” My flesh shuddered and I called out: “O son of the Apostle of God, your head is miraculous, miraculous”.

          On 25th of Muharram Hazrat Syed-us-Sajedeen Imam Zain-ul-Abedeen (A.S) the son of Imam Hussain bin Ali (A.S) and Hazrat Shaherbano who was the daughter of Yazdigard bin Shahriyar bin Choesroe, martyred in Medina in the year 95 A.H at that time he was fifty-seven 57 years of age. He was buried in Janna-tul Baqee with his uncle Imam Hasan bin Ali ibne Abi Talib (A.S).